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Antibiotic Loaded Nano Rod Bone Cement for the Treatment of Osteomyelitis

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Mala Rajendran*, Gazana Iraivan, Ghayathri B.L., Preetha Mohan, Keerthana R. Chandran, Hari P. Nagaiah and Ruby C.A. Selvaraj   Pages 70 - 89 ( 20 )

Abstract:


Background: Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is the clinical gold standard biomaterial for local antibiotic therapy in osteomyelitis. However, it releases 50% of the antibiotic within the first three days. It generates excessive heat during polymerization and is non-biodegradable. It must be removed by another operation. The best-known alternative for PMMA is hydroxyapatite.

Objectives: The present patented work is focused on synthesizing the biodegradable hydroxyapatite in nano form for slow and sustained release of antibiotics and studying the release kinetics of antibiotics.

Methods: Nano-hydroxyapatite was synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized by particle size analyser, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis. Antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite was prepared as 7 mm beads. The efficiency of drug-loaded nano-hydroxyapatite beads against osteomyelitic isolates was evaluated by well diffusion assay. Zero-order, first order, second order, Higuchi model, Korsmeyer-Peppas and Gompertz models were fit into the release kinetics of antibiotics from hydroxyapatite.

Results: Average size of nano-hydroxyapatite was 5 nm. The bactericidal activity exhibited by antibiotic- loaded micro-sized hydroxyapatite was therapeutic until 10 days only, whereas antibiotic-loaded nano-hydroxyapatite was therapeutic until 8 weeks. This confirms the burst release of antibiotics from micro-sized hydroxyapatite beads. In contrast, the release was slow and sustained up to 8 weeks from nano-hydroxyapatite. Korsmeyer-Peppas model fits into the release kinetics of antibiotics from nanohydroxyapatite.

Conclusion: Nano-hydroxyapatite with a Ca/P ratio of 1.78 is suitable for the slow and sustained delivery of antibiotics for 8 weeks.

Keywords:

Antibiotics, bactericidal activity, bone cement, Gompertz model, Korsmeyer-Peppas model, nano-hydroxyapatite.

Affiliation:

Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, Tamil Nadu

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